Film director Oleksandr Dovzhenko and dissident Mykola Horbal were born on this day


Dovzhenko lived for 62 years. He also became famous as a writer, dramaturg, and artist.

In 1918-1919, he fought against the Bolsheviks in the ranks of Arima of the Ukrainian People’s Republic (UNR).

He directed the cult film trilogy “Zvenigora” (1928), “Arsenal” (1929), “Earth” (1930).

Because he saw and presented the events of World War II differently than communist propaganda demanded, he was forced to spend his last years in Moscow, where he was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery. The artist was forbidden to return to Ukraine, where he left during the evacuation.

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On September 10, 1994, on Dozhvenka’s birthday, the Oleksandr Dovzhenka National Center was created by decree of President Leonid Kravchuk within the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine, “as an institution that was supposed to become a national film archive, collect all Ukrainian cinema and investigate its phenomenon”. reminds the official TG channel of the Dovzhenko Center.

For his employees, September 10 is always a double holiday.


On September 10, 1940, Mykola Horbal was born into a peasant family in the village of Volovets, Horlytsky District, Lemkiv Region. Poet, dissident, member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group. About this tells Historical calendar of the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory.

In 1945, the family was forcibly deported to the Ukrainian SSR – first to Kharkiv Oblast, and two years later the Horbals moved to Western Ukraine to the village of Lytyachi in Ternopil Oblast. The first years after resettlement seemed hungry.

“We were without a piece of bread, we didn’t even have a place to collect quinoa, because you can’t climb through other people’s gardens,” Horbal recalled later.

Mykola Horbal was interested in music since childhood. His father was a regent, led the church choir, knew notes, solfeggio. At the age of 16, Mykola learned to play the violin. He graduated from the Chortkiv Music and Pedagogical College, majoring in music and singing. He worked as a music teacher in Borshchiv, taught music at the school, aesthetics at the Borshchiv Technical School of Mechanization, created a youth ensemble of teachers, led the children’s song and dance ensemble “Sun” at the house of pioneers. He started writing songs himself.

He spoke with students about national art. He read poetry by Lina Kostenko, Vasyl Simonenko, and Ivan Drach. In 1970, he was asked to conduct an open lesson, after which he was arrested for so-called anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda. The main point of accusation was his poem “Duma”, in which the Soviet Union was depicted as a totalitarian state, and Ukraine as a colony, and Gorbal’s confession that he listened to Western radio stations. Sentence – 5 years of imprisonment in strict regime camps and 2 years of exile to Siberia. The arrest did not give him the opportunity to graduate from the institute (he studied by correspondence at the Faculty of Music Education of the Ivano-Frankivsk Institute).

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He served his first sentence in Mordovia, in a strict regime “political” camp, where he met many UPA fighters who supported and inspired him.

In the camp, together with the engineer-economist Zinovii Antoniuk, he conducted the underground “Chronicle from the Zone” – on thin cigarette paper he wrote down verdicts, lawlessness of jailers, interviews with prisoners already known in the world. Information was freely given. These messages were distributed by self-publishers, and were broadcast on Radio Svoboda and Voice of America. Participated in all protest actions.

After his release in 1977, he came to Kyiv, became a member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, helped political prisoners and their families. In 1979, he was again sentenced to 5 years of strict regime camps, accused of a fabricated case of a criminal offense – attempted rape. During his last speech at the court, he openly admitted himself as a member of the UGG.

A day before the end of the term, he was re-arrested for anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda and for the third time sentenced to 8 years of particularly strict regime and three years of exile. One of the “proofs of guilt” was the article “Life in a criminal camp”, published in Paris in the newspaper “Ukrainian Slovo”. He served his last term in the infamous military camp – 389/36-1 in the village of Kuchyno, where Vasyl Stus, Oleksa Tyhiy, Yuriy Lytvyn and other political prisoners died. In total, he spent 16 years in camps and exile.

He was one of the last to be released during Perestroika with the personal assistance of American President Ronald Reagan.

During Free Ukraine, he joined the development of the Ukrainian Republican Party. Lives and works in the Ukrainian capital.

He was elected a deputy of the Kyiv City Council, a People’s Deputy of Ukraine.

In 1999, he founded the “Bohdan Gallery” Charitable Foundation to support non-traditional art and help non-professional disabled artists and popularize their art.

Organizer and member of the male vocal group “Lemki Kyiv”.



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